入侵物种能够走多远?

2017-01-12 13:40:22 来源: 中国科技网 作者: 张微编译

由于贸易和运输的全球化,在过去几十年里,成千上万的物种已经扩散到了其他地区,而这里不是它们的原产地。这种情况的严重后果包括,侵占了本地物种的生存空间或导致本地物种的灭绝,以及对物种健康带来风险。虽然贸易流是物种入侵的一条重要路径,但是这一情况本身不足以解释我们所观察到的物种分布模式。

来自德国和奥地利的科学家,在考虑贸易流通基础上,研究了全球1380种外来动、植物物种的传播扩散情况。“模式很明显。绝大多数物种的起源地距离它们的入侵地有大约1万公里的距离。与此相反,大部分进口货物来自邻国,” 森肯堡生物多样性和气候研究中心的Hanno Seebens博士解释说。

为了将这个明显的矛盾研究清楚,研究团队开发了一个计算机模型,该模型将国际贸易流和物种的全球分布结合。结果表明,已经出现在目标国的物种主要进行小于3000公里的短距离传播扩散,另一方面,非本地物种通常能够入侵到较远距离的地区。

物种传播的全球模式密切反映了全球的贸易流。但,只有当一个物种首次征服一个新的地区时,这个规律才适用。一旦外来物种在该区域站稳脚跟,它就可以进行短距离传播,入侵到新的地区。

对这些“新移民”来说,不同种群的动物和植物扩散到新地区的方式是不同的。哺乳动物、爬行动物和鱼类,通常是短距离扩散(3000公里)。植物和鸟类往往能够入侵到更远的地区。

“非本地物种的传播扩散是一个复杂的过程,数据情况还远远不够完善。即便如此,这个简单模型还是能够解释让人惊讶的物种扩散过程,”奥尔登堡的海洋化学和生物研究所(ICBM)的教授,Bernd Blasius博士说。“这使我们有理由相信,将来,有了这类模型的辅助,我们能够更好、更有效地了解外来物种入侵。”(张微编译)

以下为英文原文:

How far do invasive species travel?

As a result of the globalization of trade and transport, in the past decades, tens of thousands of species have spread into regions where they were not originally at home. Potentially serious consequences of this include the displacement or extinction of native species and the spread of health risks. Even though trade flows are known to represent an important path for the introduction of invasive species, this fact alone is not enough to explain the observed distribution patterns of species.

Scientists from Germany and Austria have examined the global spread of 1,380 exotic animal and plant species under consideration of the trade flows. "A clear pattern is apparent. A particularly large number of species originates in areas that are located at a distance of approximately 10,000 kilometers from the place of introduction. Contrary to this, the majority of the imported goods come from the immediate neighboring countries," explains Dr. Hanno Seebens of the Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Center.

In order to study this apparent contradiction, the team developed a computer model that combines the international trade flows with the species' worldwide distribution. The model shows that short distances of less than 3,000 kilometers primarily serve the transport of species that already occur in the target country. On the other hand, non-native species are usually introduced over comparatively much longer distances.

Here, the global patterns of the species' spread closely mirror the global trade flows. However, this only holds true when a species conquers new ground for the first time. Once an exotic species has gained a foothold outside its region of origin, it can also spread to new areas over short distances.

The manner in which these 'new settlers' spread to new areas differs between various groups of plants and animals. Mammals, reptiles and fishes, in particular, often spread over rather short distances (3,000 kilometers). Plants and birds tend to invade regions at a much greater distance

"The spread of non-native species is a complex process, and the data situation is far from complete. Therefore, it is even more astonishing that the spread can be explained with simple models," says Prof. Dr. Bernd Blasius of the Institute for Marine Chemistry and Biology (ICBM) at the University of Oldenburg. "This gives us reason to hope that in the future, the introduction of exotic species can be better understood and more efficiently contained with the aid of such models."

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